Thus, a patent is the right granted by a government to prevent others from commercial use of his invention. This science has proved to be a boon especially in manufacturing of vaccinations and genetic testing. For example, one patent covers ‘all transgenic plants of family Brassicaceae/mustard family. Recent studies on the use of mycopesticides for the control of insect pests are of much value. Biotech Application in Agriculture. Biopiracy 8. Gene therapy is a technique to remove genetic defect in embryo or child. Applications of biotechnology in the food industry: Enzymes Last Updated : 06 September 2006. Bacillus thuringiensis, was the first bio-pesticide to be used on a commercial scale. The use of bio-pesticides may reduce the application of synthetic chemicals for control of diseases, insect pests and weeds. The infective conidia, spores, etc., of the antagonistic fungi reach the haemocoel of the insect either through integument or mouth. Such type of bio-war and use of bioweapons against civilised human society is a major threat for all inhabitants of this planet, the earth. A bio-fertilizer is a substance that contains living organisms that, when … We have become recognizable to the thought of enzymes in our everyday lives and many people are recognizable with the argument adjacent the use of GMOs in our foods...Read More, Application of biotechnology to food processing in developing countries is an issue of debate and discussions for a long time. Plagiarism Prevention 4. However, arguments in favour of bio-patents are given primarily of increased economic growth. Bioweapons are low cost weapons, and cause far more casualities than chemical or conventional weapons. f. However, biotechnology poses unforeseen risks to the environment and biodiversity. In today’s scenario, it is very difficult to feed a huge population with limited resources. While data science is emerging in biotechnology, there are still many milestones to be achieved to unleash its unlimited potential. Single Cell Protein (SCP) 6. Spirulina (SCP) is a rich source of protein, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, crude fibres, etc., it is used as supplemented food in diets of under-nourished children, adults and old aged people in developing countries. c. Introduction of a transgene from one species into another species threats integrity of species. This crystal is toxic and proteinaceous in nature. However, they are poor in biodiversity and traditional knowledge related to bio-resources. B. thuringiensis preparations have been produced in U.S.A., France, Russia and U.K. in the form of wettable powder and water suspensions. Biotechnology Applications In Medicine You may have already learnt about Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology. For example, hirudin is a protein that prevents blood clotting. Rhizobial biofertilizer can fix 50-150 kg N/ha/annum. However, such practices cannot be continued indefinitely. The application of Biotechnology to solve the environmental problems in the environment and in the ecosystems is called Environmental Biotechnology. Biopatents are awarded for the following: (iii) Genetically modified strains of plants and animals, (v) The proteins enclosed by DNA sequences. Some of these micro-organisms are free-living, while others form symbiotic association with plant roots. The container with bioweapons could be delivered to the target by several ways, including missiles and aircrafts. However, when a transgene is introduced into the genome of an organism, it can achieve one of the following characteristics: (ii) Produces a protein which itself produces the desired phenotype. (iii) In view of this, such crops may damage the environment in some mysterious manner. Ethics includes ‘moral principles’ that control or influence a person’s behaviour. On the basis of ethical and political reasons, such bio-patents have been opposed from time to time by different societies of the world. From its inception, biotechnology has maintained a close relationship with society. (ii) The change in genotype can be controlled to some extent as only the transgene is added into the crop genome. This makes the phosphorus available to the plants. Biotechnology is a very broad domain and finds applications in several domains. The gene encoding hirudin was chemically synthesised. It is applied and it is used to study the natural environment. For example, Some variants of fungus found in … Alcohol production is one of the most basic applications of industrial biotechnology. Applications and Advantages of Biotechnology in food industry. These grains (kernels) will be used for the extraction of brazzein, which can give a serious jolt to the countries exporting large quantities of sugar. Certain other bacteria and fungi are also used for control of some weeds and diseases of various crop plants. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. It has been argued that the above mentioned features of GM foods may be harmful and problem making if such foods are consumed. In general, plant growth, survival and yield are increased. The applications are: 1. Biological resources or bio-resources are those organisms which can be used to derive commercial benefits from them. For the first time the European Commission’s Scientific Advisors have recommended that a genetically engineered potato be withheld from the market because they cannot guarantee its safety. Dictionary meaning of patent is, ‘an official right to be the only person to make, use or sell a product or an invention’. Biotechnology is a very vast field and its applications are used in various fields of science such as agriculture and medicine. Traditional knowledge related to bio-resources is the knowledge developed by various communities from time immemorial, regarding the utilisation of the bio-resources, e.g., use of plants and other organisms in healing art. The dried cells of micro-organisms, such as algae, bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, used as food or feed are collectively known as microbial protein. which will prove beneficial in increasing crop production without affecting human health. In such cases, transgenic crops should not be grown in close vicinity of their wild relatives. Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture. e. Biotechnology is only used for fulfillment of the motive of selfishness by humans. Biotechnology has application in four major industrial areas, including health care (medical), crop production and agriculture, non food (industrial) uses of crops and other products (e.g. After ingestation of spores, larvae are damaged, as the rod-shaped bacterial cell secretes at the opposite end, a single large crystal (Cry) in the cell. Algae which contain chlorophylls, do not require organic wastes. However, it has forced the governments of many countries to rethink on introduction of such crop. Spores of this bacterium produce the insecticidal Cry protein. Such varieties are successful in reducing yield losses due to various crop diseases, thus they enhance agricultural production. Azolla supplies N, increases organic matter and fertility in soil and shows tolerance against heavy metals. The gene that encodes coat protein is isolated from the genome of the virus that causes concerned disease. Biowar 9. The fruits of this transgenic variety have a superior taste and increased total soluble solids. Some developing nations coming forward and raising voice to make laws to prevent unauthorised exploitation of bio-resources and traditional knowledge. (ii) The transgenic crops may themselves become persistent weeds. Here the fungi absorb their food from the roots and in response are beneficial to the plants. The phenomenon of fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by biological means is known as ‘diazotrophy’ or ‘biological nitrogen fixation’ and these prokaryotes as ‘diazotrophs’ or ‘nitrogen fixers’ (nif). (iii) The bacteria present in the intestine of the humans may take up the antibiotic resistance gene that is present in the GM food. Such disease-resistant varieties are used to minimize the use of chemicals which are generally used for control of crop diseases. Bioethics. Examples of nitrogen-fixing micro-organisms are bacteria and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). A transgenic crop that contains and expresses a transgene (i.e., functional foreign gene). It is a growing concern all over the world that the genetic food may pose risks to human health, ecology and the environment. Genetically Modified Crops: The plants, in which a functional foreign gene has been incorporated by … Any such development which reduces the use of non-renewable resources, and level of pollution, will definitely enhance the sustainability of agriculture. However, micro-organisms employed to enhance the availability of nutrients like nitrogen, and phosphorus to crops are called biofertilizers. The plants, in which a functional foreign gene has been incorporated by any biotechnological methods that generally not present in plant, are called transgenic plants. The other example is of a soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis which produces a crystal (Cry) protein. There is a vast majority of micro-organisms, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and mycoplasma known to kill the insect pests. Prohibited Content 3. It is a spore forming bacterium and produces several toxins. Biofertilizers make a low cost and easy technique and can be used by small farmers. They multiply in haemocoel followed by secretion of mycotoxins which result in death of insect hosts. Besides ethical arguments, techniques of biotechnology are used in the production of things on a much larger scale and at a much faster rate. These toxins are of different types, such as beta-endotoxin and delta-endotoxin. They are ideal for human food. Production of polygalacturonase was blocked in the transgenic tomato variety ‘Flavr Savr’. Biotechnology is widely used in different fields to modify and produce a useful product for human benefits. Content Guidelines 2. Now a day, some of the biopesticides are being used even at commercial scale. A bioweapon is a device that carries and delivers to the target organisms, a pathogen or a toxin derived from it. Thus, Ti-plasmid mediated transformation of several plants has been done, e.g., tobacco, cotton, tomato, com, etc. Here, the traditional knowledge is primarily used in the direction to be followed which saves a lot of time, and bio-resources are easily commercialised. A cloud of anthrax spores, if released at a strategic location to be inhaled by the individuals under attack may act as an agent of effective weapon of bio-war. It has been recommended by medicinal experts for reducing body weight, cholesterol and for better health. Enzymes, the naturally-occurring proteins which allow all the biochemical processes of life to occur, are found in all food raw materials. Thus, bioethics makes a set of standards which is used to regulate our activities in relation to the whole bio-kingdom. On the other hand, insoluble forms of soil phosphorus are converted into soluble forms by certain micro-organisms. Preparations of Bt gene in powder form have been made available in market for commercial use. Biotechnology contributes in several ways for enhancement of the sustainability of agriculture. For example, the anthrax bacteria were sent through letters after September 2001, in U.S.A. An attack with bioweapons using antibiotic-resistant strains would initiate the incidence and spread of communicable diseases, such as anthrax and plague, on either an endemic or epidemic scale. Industrial Applications of Biotechnology:. This aspect of biotechnology includes preventing the discharge of pollutants to the environment, cleaning up contaminated environments, and generating valuable resources for human so… b. biodegradable plastics, vegetable oil, biofuels), and environmental uses. Here, the transgene product itself is the desired product. Application of Biotechnology in Pharmaceutical Industry 10. Genetically engineered crop based agriculture . Sustainable agriculture primarily has renewable resources, which cause minimum pollution and maintain the optimum yield level. Pathogenic microorganisms which kill insects are viruses (DNA containing viruses), bacteria (e.g.. Bacillus thuringiensis), and fungi (e.g., Aspergillus, Fusarium, etc.). However, extensive efforts are made to enhance the effectiveness and the contribution of biofertilizers to agricultural production. The Cry protein is toxic to larvae of certain insects. Biofertiliser Technologies. The possible defences against bioweapons include use of gas mask, vaccination, administration of specific antibiotics, and decontamination. Report a Violation, Plant Biotechnology: Meaning, Principle and Application of Plant Biotechnology, Applications of Biotechnology in Transgenic Plants and Animals, Genome: Meaning, Revelations and Implications. 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