The base failure rate is further modified using some factors like, factor for quality of the component, operating environment, various stresses the component will be subjected to and physical and structural parameters associated with the component. where λp is the failure rate in failure per million calendar hours. Don't be fooled, BOMs are still just a list of commodity products. Or ask for freebies like they do in the United States? A good rep understands the importance of relationship and talks about it. The bulk of CE manufacturing is located in a different country, a country that doesn’t follow American norms of conducting business. Most startups don’t have that luxury. Additionally, the πE, which factors in the environmental condition, is factored into the overall failure rate calculation. They usually don’t spend their time with startups, but when they do, they will not offer free trips to Asia, free shipping, or promise engineering work at no cost. The Part Stress section of MIL-HDBK-217 includes complete details on all the equations and how to assess the variables used in the equations. Exhibit I presents a composite picture of the quality performance of U.S. and Japanese manufacturers of room air conditioners. The daunting nature of manufacturing coupled with the genuine surprise that there are no shortcuts is just too much to take in for some entrepreneurs. There is nothing wrong with this model, especially if the VC’s believe in the team and nudge them to deliver product on-time and on-budget. Telcordia was developed for commercial applications. Complex systems and cultural differences in CE can be managed and learned. Entrepreneurs have to be especially careful in choosing their partners to make sure they are not naïve or running a scam. Each Reliability Prediction standard offers a set of mathematical formulas to model and calculate the failure rate of a variety of electromechanical components that make up a product or system. Typical usage is to start with a Parts Count analysis and then move to a Part Stress prediction as actual design parameters are finalized. These relationships and their vast importance have an unintended consequence in the world of manufacturing electronics. They don’t cover the cost of shipping and they aren’t interested in trading equity for logistics work. The failure rate estimates from China’s GJB/z 299 tend to be very divergent from the other standards, especially for microelectronic devices. The general rule of acceptable failure rate for new electronics is 10-15%. Listen for clues that your rep is factory-direct. This way of work is called ‘Guanxi’ in China, which is literally translated as ‘relationship’ in English. Stop a project mid-run? Once the device level black-box steady state failure rates are determined, the unit level and system level failure rates can be calculated. Spending a few months in China or sending money does not build a solid relationship you can count on. The following is what you’ll have to undertake to manufacture this device at volume: As you can see, manufacturing even a basic electronic device is a great feat. 8-10 cc/min and still be considered an acceptable part based on its use and test specifications. When electronic components are over-stressed their failure rates increase rapidly above the nominal failure rates. Promises are made for free container shipping, discounted BOM costs, free quality assurance, etc. A. yes B. no * If rate is not acceptable, what would be an appropriate “high criticality” failure rate, i.e., what would be your definition of “never”? Its revisions and updates are designated with suffix notations similar to MIL-HDBK-217. We feel it is time for American entrepreneurs to face the challenge of manufacturing electronics head-on. Why do entrepreneurs fall for scams so often? These relationships take years, and bucking a system that even Apple has to play by is a fool’s game. You can also mix and match standards. Even fewer of us understand how to get a CE device off an assembly line on-time and on-budget. The most recent China GJB/z standard is China’s GJB/z 299C. They live with electronics every day and have seen hundreds of products heralded as ‘the next big thing.’ They’re over it. Honesty about capabilities. They WILL make an introduction to a factory but often disappear after you’ve written your first check. Bottom line, a scam is a scam, and you’re headed to failure if you fall for one. Because Guanxi is written about so little and remains a mystery to most, overlooking it is a leading source of failure for American startups. This article pro… If a manufacturing rep has to babysit their CM they don’t have Guanxi. The infrastructure for consumer electronics is in Asia, so if the MSRP of your product is below $200, you will ultimately be building where the infrastructure is already in place. An example equation for capacitors in 217Plus 2015 Notice 1 is: λP =πG* πC * (λOB * πDCO * πTO * πS + λEB * πDCN * πTE + λTCB * πCR * πDT ) + λSJB * πSJDT + λIND. Why would a company refer a startup to their Asian partners when there is a good chance the startup may not pay a bill? Even for those entrepreneurs who understand and accept the difficulty of the manufacturing process, there are still the cultural differences between the United States and China (or Vietnam, Singapore, Taiwan, or Japan) to navigate. Once the device failure rates are evaluated, they are summed up to determine a base system failure rate. The upside to the Outsourcing Model is that it’s safe and the work is usually guaranteed. The Part Stress section includes complete details on all the equations and how to assess the variables used in the equations. I am using a service called blitz IO. In this case, you get coverage of almost all device types used in product design. This is not solely my observation – the US Army has cancelled its use of part count method MTBF predictions (i.e. Startups that choose this path use an American, Fortune-sized company that owns manufacturing solutions in electronics, such as Flex, Plexus, Jabil, etc. China’s GJB/z 299 Reliability Prediction standard has its roots in MIL-HDBK-217 and has been developed to align with the procedures and devices found in China. Forging ahead in the midst of a scam only works with millions of dollars in your pocket and the time to move to Asia for a prolonged period. - Any company suggesting circuit boards or injection molding tools are best manufactured by hand. This scam often involves bringing an entrepreneur to Asia, where you’ll hear from CM’s about ‘new business schemes,’ and see recent work done for Apple or Sony or some other big company. In a similar fashion to MIL-HDBK-217, there are two components of the China’s GJB/z 299 standard: the Part Stress section and the Parts Count section. Not understanding that BOMs are a commodity cost is a sign that the manufacturing rep doesn’t use Asian sourcing teams or simply doesn’t know what they are doing. Startups that find themselves in the middle of these business deals should try to get out, or if you have enough cash, move yourself to China for the remainder of your build. Our goal here is to put the scam artists out of business and to bring more transparency to manufacturing. To allow for more flexibility level failure rates depend solely on the and! Their own t their fault that they don ’ t follow American norms of conducting business data spans variety! 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